We can also called hub a multiple port repeater. It receives a digital signal and enlarges it, then sends that signal to all ports in that hub without reading data. So, its means all devices connecting to that hub are in a single collision domain and in a single broadcast domain. Hubs never inspect any kind of traffic that enters in it and transmitted from it to the multiple parts of the physical media. Each device plugged into the hub must pay attention if anyone device transmits. A hub can creates a star topology network, where the hub is a vital core device and cables extend from it to out the all directions. In this star topology, Ethernet networks flow a logical bus topology, that’s mean a signal has to flow on the network from end to end hosts.
Hubs and repeaters used to increase the area a LAN segment. However, I do not recommend Hubs or repeaters. Layer 2 Switches are really cheaper now and affordable for almost all situations.
This article is relating to The Hubs when using at the Physical Layer according to the CCNA 640-802 Cisco Certified Network Associate’ course detail 2011.